bitter, sour, slightly cold; affinity to Liv. & Sp. meridian nourishes blood, regulates menstruation; pacifies liver, alleviates pain; restrains Yin, adjusts Yin and Wei level, reduces sweat;
activates blood circulation, unblocks menstruation; dissolves blood stasis, reduces swelling, relieves pain from trauma
tonifies blood, activates blood circulation, removes Qi stagnation, alleviates pain, regulate menstruation; moistens intestine, promotes bowel movement, relieves constipation.